An adult human has a gut surface area averaging 30 square meters that is bombarded daily by xenobiotics and microorganisms. Mucus synthesized by goblet cells supplies a protective barrier coating. Nyström et al. discovered that goblet cells are not all the same along the length of the gut; rather, they form different functional populations depending on location. Small-intestine mucus is laced with antimicrobial peptides and is permeable to small molecules; downstream, thicker mucus is generated that excludes bacteria and xenobiotics. Mucus oozes in thick plumes from goblet cells within the crypts to shield the stem cell niche. Between the crypts lie highly differentiated goblet cells producing permeable mucus. Together, both types of mucus form a network that shelters the gut epithelium. If, however, the intercrypt goblet cells become dysfunctional, the exposed epithelium is exposed to bacteria and vulnerable to developing colitis. An intricate balance with our intestinal microbes is pivotal to human health. A key interface of host-microbial interactions occurs in the mucus that covers the intestinal epithelial surface. In the colon, the mucus layer serves as a barrier that inhibits direct epithelial contact with the dense population of microbes. Defects in this system are a hallmark of colitis. The mucus layer is structurally dependent on the polymeric mucin MUC2, which is synthesized by goblet cells (GCs)—specialized secretory cells classically viewed as a homogeneous cell type. Studies identifying divergent functional features in GC subpopulations, including differential mucus biosynthesis rates and responses to bacteria, suggest that GC populations may in fact be heterogeneous. In the present study, we characterized intestinal GC expression diversity and defined how a specific GC subtype, localized in the intercrypt surface epithelium, functionally contributes to the formation of the mucus barrier. Using mCherry-MUC2 transgenic mice to sort and isolate GCs, we generated transcriptomic and proteomic profiles to characterize the GC expression landscape in both the small intestine and the colon. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis revealed several distinct GC clusters in each tissue region, which segregated into two separate trajectories. One trajectory had enriched expression of known GC-specific genes (e.g., Clca1 and Fcgbp) and was designated as canonical GCs.


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Both teams are deeply committed to delivering a more environmentally friendly and scalable option for the NFT community as it continues to evolve and excite new audiences worldwide.” Casper Network’s Proof-of-Stake (PoS) architecture allows for a higher volume of secure transactions with no drop off in performance, while producing a fraction of the energy expended by traditional blockchain protocols. As interest in NFTs continues to accelerate, both organizations are committed to promoting a more environmentally-friendly consumption and distribution model. With the support of CasperLabs, WISeKey’s unique Digital Identification NFT platform technology will run on the Casper Network to deliver the most secure and scalable blockchain backend for creating real digital twins for valuable objects. This unique approach will make it possible to mint provenance and a digital version into an NFT that contains smart contracts on how the digital twin may be used, removing any uncertainty of what an NFT actually means to a collector by delivering authenticated digital twins to the art and luxury market. WISeKey and Ocean are working together to launch WISeART, a decentralized marketplace for physical paintings, sculptures, and more. The marketplace will include NFTs to represent the physical work, combined with fungible tokens for more fluid price discovery, and enable staking on physical artworks. The marketplace combines the strengths of WISeKey and Ocean. WISeKey has developed specialized chips to link physical items with NFTs, and world-class blockchain identity technology. Ocean has developed powerful decentralized marketplace technology, battle-hardened in the domain of data. Combined with WISeKey’s NFTs, this marketplace technology readily ports to the domain of physical art and offers other benefits given the Ocean team’s pioneering experience in blockchain art platforms. Purchasing an exclusive piece of art is always a matter of great joy, but this purchase comes with the concern that the work may be stolen, the art itself may not be an original, or its provenance might not be verifiable. While most high-end art collectors find it difficult to stop such acts, WISeKey’s WISeART technology takes steps to protect exclusive pieces of artwork. It combines cutting-edge authentication microprocessors with identity blockchain technology, which together with on-the-ground measures can ensure the authenticity of the artwork (see video  https://youtu.be/oNvhMvdchGk ). Moreover, if the art is stolen, it can be traced, making it difficult to be traded on the secondary market. This control is possible to practice because each artwork’s identity is stored on an immutable ledger (blockchain) in the implemented system. WISeKey (NASDAQ: WKEY; SIX Swiss Exchange: WIHN) is a leading global cybersecurity company currently deploying large scale digital identity ecosystems for people and objects using Blockchain, AI and IoT respecting the Human as the Fulcrum of the Internet. WISeKey microprocessors secure the pervasive computing shaping today’s Internet of Everything. WISeKey IoT has an install base of over 1.5 billion microchips in virtually all IoT sectors (connected cars, smart cities, drones, agricultural sensors, anti-counterfeiting, smart lighting, servers, computers, mobile phones, crypto tokens etc.).  WISeKey is uniquely positioned to be at the edge of IoT as our semiconductors produce a huge amount of Big Data that, when analyzed with Artificial Intelligence (AI), can help industrial applications to predict the failure of their equipment before it happens. Our technology is Trusted by the OISTE/WISeKey’s Swiss based cryptographic Root of Trust (“RoT”) provides secure authentication and identification, in both physical and virtual environments, for the Internet of Things, Blockchain and Artificial Intelligence. The WISeKey RoT serves as a common trust anchor to ensure the integrity of online transactions among objects and between objects and people.